424B5
Table of Contents

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration Number 333-230204

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Securities

to be Registered

  Amount to be
Registered
 

Proposed
Maximum
Offering

Price Per

Share(1)

 

Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Amount of

Registration

Fee(2)

Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share   1,000,000   $132.940   $132,939,500   $17,256

 

 

(1)

Estimated in accordance with Rule 457(c) solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee on the basis of $132.940, the average of the high and low prices of Roku’s Class A common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 12, 2019.

 

(2)

Payment of the registration fee at the time of filing of the Registrant’s registration statement on Form S-3, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 12, 2019, was deferred pursuant to Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act and is paid herewith.


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(TO PROSPECTUS DATED MARCH 12, 2019)

 

LOGO

 

1,000,000 Shares

Class A Common Stock

 

 

 

We have entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement, or Distribution Agreement, with Citigroup Global Markets Inc., relating to shares of our Class A common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Distribution Agreement, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock from time to time through Citigroup Global Markets Inc., acting as sales agent.

 

We have two classes of authorized common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes per share and is convertible into one share of Class A common stock.

 

Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “ROKU.” On November 18, 2019, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $160.12 per share.

 

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and on page 5 of the accompanying prospectus, and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

 

Sales of our Class A common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will act as sales agent and use reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of Class A common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 2.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of Class A common stock sold under the Distribution Agreement. In connection with the sale of our Class A common stock on our behalf, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

Citigroup

 

 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is November 19, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-i  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-7  

DILUTION

     S-8  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-9  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-11  

EXPERTS

     S-11  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-11  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     S-12  
PROSPECTUS   

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     29  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     31  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     32  

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of our securities described in the accompanying prospectus in one or more offerings. We are providing information to you about this offering of our Class A common stock in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which provides you with specific information regarding the terms of this offering and our Class A common stock, and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which provides more general information, some of which does not apply to this offering of our Class A common stock.

 

This prospectus supplement adds to, updates, and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference therein with respect to this offering of our Class A common stock. To the extent that any information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the information in the accompanying prospectus or any information incorporated by reference therein, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date, the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

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Before buying any of the Class A common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and all of the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under the sections titled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

We provide information to you about this offering of shares of our Class A common stock in this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.

 

We have not, and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has not, authorized any other person to provide you with any information different from that contained in the prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. We and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus supplement. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

Information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of the Class A common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the Class A common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, the terms “Roku,” “Roku, Inc.,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Roku, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated herein and therein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the sections titled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the risk factors incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information appearing elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

Roku, Inc.

 

Roku pioneered streaming to the TV and we are capitalizing on this large economic opportunity as a leading TV streaming platform for users, content publishers and advertisers. Roku connects users to the streaming content they love, enables content publishers to build and monetize large audiences, and provides advertisers with unique capabilities to engage consumers.

 

Company Information

 

We originally organized as a limited liability company in Delaware in October 2002 and subsequently incorporated in Delaware in February 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 150 Winchester Circle, Los Gatos, California 95032, and our telephone number is (408) 556-9040. Our website address is www.roku.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein or therein, and the inclusion of our website address is an inactive textual reference only.

 

The Roku logo and other trademarks or service marks of Roku, Inc. appearing in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are the property of Roku, Inc. Other trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.

 

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The Offering

 

Class A common stock offered by us

Up to 1,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock.

 

Shares of Class A common stock outstanding before this offering

87,173,010 shares

 

Shares of Class B common stock outstanding before this offering

30,264,246 shares

 

Total shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding before this offering

117,437,256 shares

 

Manner of offering

“At-the-market” offering that may be made from time to time through or to Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as sales agent. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-9.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7.

 

Risk factors

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should read the sections titled “Risk Factors,” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and on page 5 of the accompanying prospectus, and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our Class A common stock.

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“ROKU”

 

The number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019 excludes:

 

   

1,610,990 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $69.16 per share;

 

   

10,213,300 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.63 per share;

 

   

4,365,445 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units as of September 30, 2019;

 

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17,316,774 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2017 Equity Incentive Plan as of September 30, 2019, as well as (i) any automatic increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan, and (ii) upon the expiration or termination prior to exercise of any shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under our 2008 Equity Incentive Plan, an equal number of shares of Class A common stock, such number of shares not to exceed 28,000,000; and

 

   

2,089,266 shares reserved for future issuance under our 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of September 30, 2019, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

 

In addition, subsequent to September 30, 2019, in connection with the closing of our acquisition of Dataxu, Inc., we issued 571,459 shares of Class A common stock to the former Dataxu, Inc. securityholders.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the risk factors incorporated by reference herein from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could harm our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be harmed. This could cause the trading price of our securities to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Relating to the Offering

 

We will have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and, despite our efforts, we may use the net proceeds in a manner that does not increase the value of your investment.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement. However, we have not determined the specific allocation of the net proceeds among these potential uses. Our management will have broad discretion over the use and investment of the net proceeds from this offering, if any, and, accordingly, investors in this offering will need to rely upon the judgment of our management with respect to the use of proceeds, with only limited information concerning our specific intentions. These proceeds could be applied in ways that do not improve our operating results or increase the value of your investment.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the Class A common stock you purchase in the offering.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Class A and Class B common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019. Assuming that an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock are sold at a price of $160.12 per share, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 18, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $160.1 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $154.90 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units could result in further dilution of your investment.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions.

 

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in their entirety. These factors include, among other things:

 

   

our financial performance, including our revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and our ability to attain and sustain profitability;

 

   

our intended use of the net proceeds from any sales of our Class A common stock in this offering under this prospectus supplement;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain users and increase hours streamed;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain advertisers;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain additional TV brands and service operators to deploy our technology;

 

   

our ability to acquire rights to distribute popular content on our platform on favorable terms, or at all, including the renewals of our existing agreements with content publishers;

 

   

changes in consumer viewing habits or the growth of TV streaming;

 

   

the growth of our relevant markets, including the growth in advertising spend on TV streaming platforms, and our ability to successfully grow our business in those markets;

 

   

our ability to adapt to changing market conditions and technological developments, including with respect to developing integrations with our platform partners;

 

   

our ability to develop and launch new streaming devices and provide ancillary services and support;

 

   

our ability to integrate the business and operations of Dataxu, Inc., a demand-side platform (DSP) company that we recently acquired;

 

   

our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants;

 

   

our ability to successfully manage domestic and international expansion;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;

 

   

security breaches and system failures;

 

   

our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property; and

 

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our ability to comply with laws and regulations that currently apply or may become applicable to our business both in the United States and internationally, including compliance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

 

These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

 

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We cannot assure you that the events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur.

 

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus supplement or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

 

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus supplement, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

 

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the exhibits we have filed to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell up to 1,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

 

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the shares of Class A common stock offered hereby. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments as of the date of this prospectus supplement. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds that we will have from the sale of the shares of our Class A common stock. Pending the use of the net proceeds from this offering, if any, we may invest the net proceeds in investment grade, short-term interest-bearing obligations, such as money-market funds, certificates of deposit, or direct or guaranteed obligations of the United States government, or hold the net proceeds as cash.

 

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DILUTION

 

If you invest in our Class A common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock after this offering.

 

Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, was $461.3 million, or $3.93 per share. Net tangible book value is total tangible assets less our total liabilities divided by the number of outstanding shares of Class A and Class B common stock.

 

After giving effect to the sale of an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed public offering price of $160.12 per share, which was the closing price of our Class A common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on November 18, 2019, and after deducting offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, would have been $618.7 million, or $5.22 per share of Class A and Class B common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $1.29 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $154.90 per share to investors participating in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution per share to investors participating in this offering:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 160.12  

Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019

   $ 3.93     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in offering

     1.29     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

        5.22  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors

      $ 154.90  
     

 

 

 

 

The number of shares of Class A and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 87,173,010 shares of Class A common stock and 30,264,246 shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, and excludes:

 

   

1,610,990 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding options as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $69.16 per share;

 

   

10,213,300 shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options as of September 30, 2019, with a weighted-average exercise price of $5.63 per share;

 

   

4,365,445 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units as of September 30, 2019;

 

   

17,316,774 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2017 Equity Incentive Plan as of September 30, 2019, as well as (i) any automatic increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan, and (ii) upon the expiration or termination prior to exercise of any shares of Class B common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding under our 2008 Equity Incentive Plan, an equal number of shares of Class A common stock, such number of shares not to exceed 28,000,000; and

 

   

2,089,266 shares reserved for future issuance under our 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of September 30, 2019, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under this plan.

 

In addition, subsequent to September 30, 2019, in connection with the closing of our acquisition of Dataxu, Inc., we issued 571,459 shares of Class A common stock to the former Dataxu, Inc. securityholders.

 

The above illustration of dilution per share to investors participating in this offering assumes no exercise of outstanding options or vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units. To the extent that any outstanding options are exercised or outstanding restricted stock units are vested and settled, there will be further dilution to new investors.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement, or the Distribution Agreement, with Citigroup Global Markets Inc., under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our Class A common stock through Citigroup Global Markets Inc. as our sales agent. Sales of our Class A common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in transactions that are deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other existing trading market for our Class A common stock.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell Class A common stock under the Distribution Agreement, we will notify Citigroup Global Markets Inc. of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed Citigroup Global Markets Inc., unless Citigroup Global Markets Inc. declines to accept the terms of the notice, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has agreed to use its reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares of Class A common stock up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. under the Distribution Agreement to sell our Class A common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market each day in which shares of our Class A common stock are sold under the Distribution Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of Class A common stock sold on such day, the gross proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. in connection with the sales.

 

We will pay Citigroup Global Markets Inc. commissions for their services in acting as agents in the sale of our shares. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of up to 2.0% of the gross sales price per share of Class A common stock sold under the Distribution Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse Citigroup Global Markets Inc. for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of their legal counsel.

 

We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. under the terms of the Distribution Agreement, will be approximately $400,000.

 

Settlement for sales of Class A common stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our shares of Class A common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of Class A common stock on our behalf, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Citigroup Global Markets Inc. may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering pursuant to the Distribution Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Distribution Agreement as permitted therein.

 

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Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and its affiliates have, from time to time, provided, and may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received, and may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, Citigroup Global Markets Inc. will not engage in any market making activities involving our Class A common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

Cooley LLP, Palo Alto, California, will pass upon the validity of the shares of Class A common stock offered hereby. Citigroup Global Markets Inc. is being represented by Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, Menlo Park, California in connection with this offering. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, a partner of Cooley LLP beneficially owns an aggregate of 905 shares of our Class A common stock.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference (which reports (1) express an unqualified opinion on the consolidated financial statements and include an explanatory paragraph related to the Company’s change in method of accounting for revenue in fiscal year 2018 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 606 and (2) express an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting). Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

The audited historical financial statements of Dataxu, Inc. included in Roku, Inc.’s Amendment No. 1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K, dated November 18, 2019, have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an emphasis of matter relating to Dataxu, Inc.’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent accountants, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of our securities. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which constitute part of that registration statement, do not include all of the information contained in the registration statement and the accompanying exhibits. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or in the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge on the Investor section of our website, which is located at ir.roku.com. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our website address is http://www.roku.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference herein, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus supplement is an inactive textual reference only.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-38211):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December  31, 2018, from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A related to our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, filed with the SEC on April 12, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on August 9, 2019;

 

   

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2019, filed with the SEC on November 8, 2019;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form  8-K, as amended, filed with the SEC on February 21, 2019 (with respect to Items 1.01, 2.03, and 3.03 under Form  8-K), March 12, 2019, May  6, 2019, May 16, 2019, May  24, 2019, July  16, 2019, October  23, 2019, November  14, 2019, as amended, and November 18, 2019; and

 

   

the description of our Class  A common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 19, 2017, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

 

Any documents we file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of our common stock to which this prospectus supplement relates will automatically be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and to be part hereof from the date of filing those documents. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

 

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

Roku, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

150 Winchester Circle

Los Gatos, California 95032

(408) 556-9040

 

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Prospectus

LOGO

Class A Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

We may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also offer Class A common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, or Class A common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon exercise of warrants.

This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

Securities may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable discounts or commissions and options to purchase additional securities will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “ROKU.” On March 11, 2019, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $74.12 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 5 of this prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is March 12, 2019.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     25  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     29  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     31  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     32  

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings of Class A common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, in one or more offerings described in this prospectus. There is no limit on the aggregate amount of the securities that we may offer pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but

 

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only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should not assume that the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or in any such free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, the terms “Roku,” “Roku, Inc.,” “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Roku, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the sections titled “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar sections in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Roku, Inc.

Roku pioneered streaming to the TV and we are capitalizing on this large economic opportunity as a leading TV streaming platform for users, content publishers and advertisers. Roku connects users to the streaming content they love, enables content publishers to build and monetize large audiences, and provides advertisers with unique capabilities to engage consumers.

Company Information

We originally organized as a limited liability company in Delaware in October 2002 and subsequently incorporated in Delaware in February 2008. Our principal executive offices are located at 150 Winchester Circle, Los Gatos, California 95032, and our telephone number is (408) 556-9040. Our website address is www.roku.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

The Roku logo and other trademarks or service marks of Roku, Inc. appearing in this prospectus are the property of Roku, Inc. Other trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other companies.

Description of Securities

We may offer shares of our Class A common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. We may also offer Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity date, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;



 

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rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

ranking;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

 

   

material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment or other options, if any; and

 

   

the net proceeds to us, if any.

Class A Common Stock

We may issue shares of our Class A common stock from time to time. The holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted on by the stockholders. Subject to the preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends our board of directors declares out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. If we are liquidated, dissolved or wound up, the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are entitled to share pro rata all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of Class A common stock have no preemptive rights or rights to convert their Class A common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the Class A common stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the Class A common stock and Class B common stock under the heading “Description of Capital Stock—Class A and Class B Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any Class A common stock being offered.

Preferred Stock

We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares



 

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constituting any series or the designation of any series, or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our Class A common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible or exchangeable debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or our other securities. Conversion or exchange may be mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) and would be at prescribed conversion or exchange prices.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture that we will enter into with a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under the heading “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indenture and any supplemental indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants

We may issue warrants for the purchase of Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under the heading “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed the forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that we may offer as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant



 

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certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

Warrants may be issued under a warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if any, in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

Use of Proceeds

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we intend to use the net proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.

The Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing

Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ROKU.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any other securities market or other exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our securities to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as may be updated by our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering. These factors include, among other things:

 

   

our financial performance, including our revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and our ability to attain and sustain profitability;

 

   

our intended use of the net proceeds from offerings of our securities under this prospectus;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain users and increase hours streamed;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain advertisers;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain additional TV brands and service operators to deploy our technology;

 

   

our ability to acquire rights to distribute popular content on our platform on favorable terms, or at all, including the renewals of our existing agreements with content publishers;

 

   

changes in consumer viewing habits or the growth of TV streaming;

 

   

the growth of our relevant markets, including the growth in advertising spend on TV streaming platforms, and our ability to successfully grow our business in those markets;

 

   

our ability to adapt to changing market conditions and technological developments, including with respect to developing integrations with our platform partners;

 

   

our ability to develop and launch new streaming devices and provide ancillary services and support;

 

   

our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants;

 

   

our ability to successfully manage domestic and international expansion;

 

   

our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel;

 

   

security breaches and system failures;

 

   

our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property; and

 

   

our ability to stay in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or may become applicable to our business both in the United States and internationally, including compliance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

 

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These risks are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We cannot assure you that the events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this prospectus or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we intend to use the net proceeds for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized capital stock consists of shares, all with a par value of $0.0001 per share, of which:

 

   

1,000,000,000 shares are designated as Class A common stock;

 

   

150,000,000 shares are designated as Class B common stock; and

 

   

10,000,000 shares are designated as preferred stock.

A description of the material terms and provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws affecting the rights of holders of our capital stock is set forth below. The description is intended as a summary, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws which are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Class A and Class B Common Stock

Except with respect to voting, conversion and transfer rights as described below and as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or required by applicable law, shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock will have the same rights and privileges and rank equally, share ratably and be identical in all respects as to all matters.

Dividend and Distribution Rights

Subject to the prior rights of holders of all classes and series of stock at the time outstanding having prior rights as to dividends, the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by the board of directors, out of any assets of Roku legally available therefor, such dividends as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors. Any dividends paid to the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock shall be paid pro rata, on an equal priority, pari passu basis, unless different treatment of the shares of each such class is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of the majority of the outstanding shares of the applicable class of common stock treated adversely, voting separately as a class. We will not declare or pay any dividend or make any other distribution to the holders of Class A common stock or Class B common stock payable in securities of Roku unless the same dividend or distribution with the same record date and payment date shall be declared and paid on all shares of common stock; provided, however, that (i) dividends or other distributions payable in shares of Class A common stock or rights to acquire shares of Class A common stock may be declared and paid to the holders of Class A common stock without the same dividend or distribution being declared and paid to the holders of the Class B common stock if, and only if, a dividend payable in shares of Class B common stock, or rights to acquire shares of Class B common stock, as applicable, are declared and paid to the holders of Class B common stock at the same rate and with the same record date and payment date; and (ii) dividends or other distributions payable in shares of Class B common stock or rights to acquire shares of Class B common stock may be declared and paid to the holders of Class B common stock without the same dividend or distribution being declared and paid to the holders of the Class A common stock if, and only if, a dividend payable in shares of Class A common stock, or rights to acquire shares of Class A common stock, as applicable, are declared and paid to the holders of Class A common stock at the same rate and with the same record date and payment date.

Voting Rights

Holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock have identical rights, provided that, except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote of our stockholders, holders of our Class A common

 

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stock are entitled to one vote per share of Class A common stock and holders of our Class B common stock are entitled to 10 votes per share of Class B common stock. Holders of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock will vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote of stockholders, except that there will be a separate vote of our Class A common stock in order for us to, directly or indirectly, effect an asset transfer, acquisition or liquidation event (each as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation) pursuant to which the Class A common stock would not receive equivalent consideration (as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation) to the Class B common stock, and there will be a separate vote of our Class B common stock in order for us to, directly or indirectly, take action in the following circumstances:

 

   

if we propose to amend, alter or repeal any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws that modifies the voting, conversion or other powers, preferences or other special rights or privileges or restrictions of the Class B common stock;

 

   

if we reclassify any outstanding shares of Class A common stock into shares having rights as to dividends or liquidation that are senior to the Class B common stock or the right to more than one vote for each share thereof; or

 

   

if we effect an asset transfer, acquisition or liquidation event (each as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation) pursuant to which the Class B common stock would not receive equivalent consideration (as defined in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation) to the Class A common stock.

We may not increase or decrease the authorized number of shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the combined voting power of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, voting together as a single class.

We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights

Our Class A common stock and Class B common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Liquidation Rights

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, upon the completion of the distributions required with respect to any series of preferred stock that may then be outstanding, the remaining assets of the Company legally available for distribution to stockholders shall be distributed on an equal priority, pro rata basis to the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock.

Subdivisions and Combinations

If we subdivide or combine in any manner outstanding shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, then the outstanding shares of all common stock will be subdivided or combined in the same proportion and manner.

Conversion

Each share of Class B common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class A common stock. In addition, each share of Class B common stock will convert into one share of Class A

 

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common stock upon any transfer, whether or not for value and whether voluntary or involuntary or by operation of law, except for certain transfers described in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, including, without limitation, certain transfers for tax and estate planning purposes. All shares of Class B common stock will convert into Class A common stock on the earlier of (a) the first trading day on or after the date on which the outstanding shares of Class B common stock represent less than 10% of the then outstanding Class A common stock and Class B common stock or (b) the date specified by vote of the holders of 66 2/3% of the outstanding shares of Class B common stock, voting as a single class.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the Class A common stock or Class B common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with financings, possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring, discouraging or preventing a change in control of our company, may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of Class A common stock or Class B common stock, and may reduce the likelihood that Class A common stock or Class B common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price;

 

   

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if applicable;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if applicable;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our Class A common stock or Class B common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

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voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

The transfer agent for each series of preferred stock will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Stockholder Registration Rights

We are party to an investor rights agreement which provides that certain holders of our common stock and common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants, including certain holders of 5% of our capital stock and entities affiliated with certain of our directors, have certain registration rights, as set forth below. These shares are referred to as registrable securities. This investor rights agreement was entered into in February 2008 and has been amended and restated from time to time in connection with our preferred stock financings. The registration of shares of our Class A common stock pursuant to the exercise of registration rights described below would enable the holders to sell these shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. We will pay the registration expenses, other than underwriting discounts and selling commissions, of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registrations described below.

Generally, in an underwritten offering, the managing underwriter, if any, has the right, subject to specified conditions, to limit the number of shares such holders may include. The demand, piggyback and Form S-3 registration rights described below will expire three years after the effective date of the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, or with respect to any particular stockholder, such time as that stockholder holds less than 1% of the number of shares of our Class A common stock then outstanding and that stockholder can sell all of its shares under Rule 144 of the Securities Act during any three-month period.

Demand Registration Rights

The holders of the registrable securities are entitled to certain demand registration rights. The holders of a majority of the registrable securities may, on not more than two occasions, request that we register all or a portion of their shares. Such request for registration must cover 20% of such shares then outstanding.

Piggyback Registration Rights

In connection with the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, the holders of registrable securities were entitled to, and the necessary percentage of holders waived, their rights to include their shares of registrable securities in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. If we propose to register for offer and sale any of our securities under the Securities Act in another offering, either for

 

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our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares will be entitled to certain “piggyback” registration rights allowing them to include their shares in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations. As a result, whenever we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act, including a registration statement on Form S-3 as discussed below, other than with respect to a demand registration or a registration statement on Forms S-4 or S-8 or related to stock issued upon conversion of debt securities, the holders of these shares are entitled to notice of the registration and have the right, subject to limitations that the underwriters may impose on the number of shares included in the registration, to include their shares in the registration.

Form S-3 Registration Rights

The holders of the registrable securities are entitled to certain Form S-3 registration rights. The holders of these shares can make a request that we register their shares on Form S-3 if we are qualified to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the reasonably anticipated aggregate gross proceeds of the shares offered would equal or exceed $500,000. We will not be required to effect more than two registrations on Form S-3 in any twelve month period.

Anti-Takeover Provisions

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate, including the right to approve an acquisition or other change of control;

 

   

provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;

 

   

provide that our board of directors will be classified into three classes of directors;

 

   

provide that, subject to the rights of any series of preferred stock to elect directors, directors may only be removed for cause, which removal may be effected, subject to any limitation imposed by law, by the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding shares of the capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of directors;

 

   

provide that all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

   

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;

 

   

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide advance notice in writing, and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

   

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer or by our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors; and

 

   

not provide for cumulative voting rights, therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

 

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The amendment of any of these provisions would require approval by the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of our then-outstanding capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

The combination of these provisions will make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

 

   

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon closing of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned by (1) persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines business combination to include the following:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loss, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

 

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Choice of Forum

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Recently, the Delaware Chancery Court issued an opinion invalidating such provision. We plan to appeal this decision and until final resolution of this matter, we will not attempt to enforce this provision.

Listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ROKU.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or any securities market or other exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our Class A and Class B common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and its telephone number is (800) 937-5449.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our Class A common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

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to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

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compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

 

   

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

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a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We may issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.

Special Considerations For Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

the performance of third-party service providers;

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under the section titled “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated” in this prospectus. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations For Global Securities

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

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if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, “at the market” offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through one or more underwriters or dealers (acting as principal or agent), through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We will describe the terms of the offering of the securities and the specific plan of distribution in a prospectus supplement or supplements to this prospectus, any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, an amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or other filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference. Such description may include, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other purchasers;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any options to purchase additional shares or other options under which underwriters, dealers, agents or other purchasers may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and compensation received by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts. If such dealers or agents were deemed to be underwriters, they may be subject to statutory liabilities under the Securities Act.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any option to purchase additional shares or other option. If a dealer is used in the sale of securities, we, or an underwriter, will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. To the extent required, we will set forth in the prospectus supplement the name of the dealer and the terms of the transaction. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters, dealers or agents with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, dealer or agent, the nature of any such relationship.

 

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We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions payable to the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, the agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may provide agents, dealers and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or dealers or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents, dealers and underwriters or their affiliates may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we may offer, other than Class A common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may be granted an option to purchase additional shares, and engage in stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. An underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the option to purchase additional shares or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters or dealers or agents that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the Class A common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, Cooley LLP, Palo Alto, California, will pass upon the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus and any supplement thereto. As of the date of this prospectus, a partner of Cooley LLP beneficially owns an aggregate of 905 shares of our Class A common stock.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference (which reports (1) express an unqualified opinion on the consolidated financial statements and include an explanatory paragraph related to the Company’s change in method of accounting for revenue in fiscal year 2018 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 606 and (2) express an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting). Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth or incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge on the Investor section of our website, which is located at ir.roku.com. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our website address is http://www.roku.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-38211):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019;

 

   

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on February 21, 2019 (with respect to Items 1.01, 2.03, and 3.03 under Form 8-K); and

 

   

the description of our Class  A common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 19, 2017, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part effective upon filing shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Roku, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

150 Winchester Circle

Los Gatos, California 95032

(408) 556-9040

 

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LOGO

1,000,000 Shares

Class A Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

November 19, 2019

 

 

 

Citigroup