Form 8-K
ROKU, INC false 0001428439 0001428439 2019-11-19 2019-11-19

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 8-K

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): November 19, 2019

 

ROKU, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Delaware

 

001-38211

 

26-2087865

(State or Other Jurisdiction

of Incorporation)

 

(Commission

File Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

150 Winchester Circle

Los Gatos, California

 

95032

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (408) 556-9040

Not Applicable

(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report)

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instructions A.2. below):

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

 

ROKU

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§ 230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§ 240.12b-2 of this chapter).

Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

 

 


Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.

On November 19, 2019, Roku, Inc. entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”) with Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as our sales agent (the “Sales Agent”), pursuant to which we may offer and sell from time to time through the Sales Agent up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares (the “Shares”) of our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class A Common Stock”), in such share amounts as we may specify by notice to the Sales Agent, in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in the Equity Distribution Agreement.

Sales, if any, of the Shares pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement may be made in negotiated transactions or transactions that are deemed to be “at-the-market” offerings as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Nasdaq Stock Market, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. Under the Equity Distribution Agreement, we will set the parameters for the sale of shares, including the number of shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one trading day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. We are not obligated to sell any Shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement.

The Shares will be offered and sold pursuant to our shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-230204) which was automatically effective upon filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 12, 2019. We filed a prospectus supplement, dated November 19, 2019, with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares.

We may terminate the Equity Distribution Agreement upon written notice to the Sales Agent for any reason or by the Sales Agent upon written notice to us for any reason or at any time under certain circumstances, including but not limited to the occurrence of a material adverse change in our company.

The Equity Distribution Agreement contains customary representations, warranties and agreements by us, and indemnification rights and obligations of the parties. The Equity Distribution Agreement provides that the Sales Agent will be entitled to compensation for its services of up to 2.0% of the gross sales price per share of all shares sold through the Sales Agent under the Equity Distribution Agreement. Under the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, we have agreed to indemnify the Sales Agent against certain specified types of liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, to contribute to payments the Sales Agent may be required to make in respect of these liabilities, and to reimburse the Sales Agent for certain expenses. In the ordinary course of business, the Sales Agent or their respective affiliates from time to time have provided and may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and financial advisory services to the company and/or its affiliates, for which they have received or may receive customary compensation.

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale, if any, of the securities offered in the offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including sales and marketing activities, research and development activities, general and administrative matters, repayment of debt, other business opportunities and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our own, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions or investments.

The above summary of the Equity Distribution Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Equity Distribution Agreement, a copy which is attached as Exhibit 1.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference. The legal opinion of Cooley LLP relating to the shares of Class A Common Stock being offered pursuant to the Equity Distribution Agreement is filed as Exhibit 5.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K.


Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits.

Exhibit
Number

   

Description

         
 

  1.1

   

Equity Distribution Agreement, dated November 19, 2019, by and between Roku, Inc. and Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

         
 

  5.1

   

Opinion of Cooley LLP

         
 

23.1

   

Consent of Cooley LLP (included within the opinion filed as Exhibit 5.1)

         
 

104

   

Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

     

Roku, Inc.

             

Date: November 19, 2019

     

By:

 

/s/ Steve Louden

     

 

Steve Louden

     

 

Chief Financial Officer

EX-1.1

Exhibit 1.1

EXECUTION VERSION

ROKU, INC.

Up to 1,000,000

Shares of Class A Common Stock

($0.0001 par value)

Equity Distribution Agreement

November 19, 2019

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York, 10013

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Roku, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Delaware (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Manager”) as follows:

1. Description of Shares. The Company proposes to issue and sell through or to the Manager, as sales agent and/or principal, up to 1,000,000 shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“Class A Common Stock” and, together with the shares of the Company’s Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, the “Common Stock”), from time to time during the term of this Agreement and on the terms set forth in Section 3 of this Agreement. For purposes of selling the Shares through the Manager, the Company hereby appoints the Manager as exclusive agent of the Company for the purpose of soliciting purchases of the Shares from the Company pursuant to this Agreement and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to solicit purchases of the Shares on the terms and subject to the conditions stated herein. The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell the Shares directly to the Manager as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement. Certain terms used herein are defined in Section 19 hereof.

2. Representations and Warranties. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Manager at the Execution Time and on each such time the following representations and warranties are affirmed or deemed to be made pursuant to this Agreement, as set forth below.


(a) The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act and has prepared and filed with the Commission an automatic shelf registration statement, as defined in Rule 405 (File Number 333-230204) on Form S-3, including a related Base Prospectus, for registration under the Securities Act of the offering and sale of the Shares. Such Registration Statement, including any amendments thereto filed prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, became effective upon filing, and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement is in effect, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened by the Commission. The Company will file with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement relating to the Shares in accordance with Rule 424(b). As filed, the Prospectus contains all information required by the Securities Act and the rules thereunder in all material respects, and, except to the extent the Manager shall agree in writing to a modification, shall be in all substantive respects in the form furnished to the Manager prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made. The Registration Statement, at the Execution Time, each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically, deemed to be delivered pursuant to Rule 153 or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x). The initial Effective Date of the Registration Statement was not earlier than the date three years before the Execution Time. Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 which were filed under the Exchange Act on or before the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be; and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

(b) To the extent that the Registration Statement is not available for the sales of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement or the Company is not a “well known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 or otherwise is unable to make the representations set forth in Section 2(e) at any time when such representations are required, the Company shall file a new registration statement with respect to any additional shares of Class A Common Stock necessary to complete such sales of the Shares and shall cause such registration statement to become effective as promptly as practicable. After the effectiveness of any such registration statement, all references to “Registration Statement” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include such new registration statement, including all documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3, and all references to “Base Prospectus” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the final form of prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in any such registration statement at the time such registration statement became effective.

 

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(c) On each Effective Date, at the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time, at each Settlement Date and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically, deemed to be delivered pursuant to Rule 153, or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Registration Statement complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and on the date of any filing pursuant to Rule 424(b), at the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time, on each Settlement Date and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered (whether physically, deemed to be delivered pursuant to Rule 153 or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that the Company makes no representations or warranties as to the information contained in or omitted from the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished in writing to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto).

(d) At the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time and at each Settlement Date, the Disclosure Package does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The preceding sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from the Disclosure Package based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.

(e) (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or form of prospectus), (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c)) made any offer relating to the Shares in reliance on the exemption in Rule 163, and (iv) at the Execution Time and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (iv)), the Company was or is (as the case may be) a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405. The Company agrees to pay the fees required by the Commission relating to the Shares within the time required by Rule 456(b)(1) without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r).

 

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(f) (i) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2)) of the Shares and (ii) as of the Execution Time and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an Ineligible Issuer (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer.

(g) Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus does not include any information that conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement, including any document incorporated therein by reference and any prospectus supplement deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.

(h) The Registration Statement is not the subject of a pending proceeding or examination under Section 8(d) or 8(e) of the Securities Act, and the Company is not the subject of a pending proceeding under Section 8A of the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Shares.

(i) The Class A Common Stock is an “actively-traded security” exempted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act (“Regulation M”) by subsection (c)(1) of such rule.

(j) The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of at the market offerings of the Shares in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act.

(k) The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in unlawful stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(l) There is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(m) The interactive data in the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (“XBRL”) included or incorporated by reference to the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(n) The Company has been duly incorporated, is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware, has the corporate power and authority to own or lease its property and to conduct its business as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

 

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(o) Each subsidiary of the Company has been duly organized, is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction), has the corporate or other organizational power and authority to own or lease its property and to conduct its business as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction) in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole; all of the issued shares of capital stock of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable (to the extent that such concepts are applicable in such jurisdiction) and are owned directly by the Company or a subsidiary of the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package. The Company does not have any significant subsidiaries, as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act.

(p) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(q) The authorized capital stock of the Company conforms as to legal matters to the description thereof contained in, or incorporated by reference into, each of the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package.

(r) The shares of Common Stock outstanding prior to the issuance of the Shares have been duly authorized and are validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

(s) The Shares have been duly authorized and, when issued, delivered and paid for in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable, and the issuance of such Shares will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

(t) There are no transfer taxes or other similar fees or charges under Federal law or the laws of any state, or any political subdivision thereof, required to be paid in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the issuance by the Company or sale by the Company of the Shares.

 

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(u) The execution and delivery by the Company of, and the performance by the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will not contravene any provision of (i) applicable law, (ii) the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the Company, (iii) any agreement or other instrument binding upon the Company or any of its subsidiaries that is material to the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or (iv) any judgment, order or decree of any governmental body, agency or court having jurisdiction over the Company or any subsidiary, except that in the case of clauses (i), (iii) and (iv) as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company or on the power and ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement; and no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or qualification with, any governmental body or agency is required for the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement, except such as has previously been obtained and such as may be required by the securities or Blue Sky laws of the various states or foreign jurisdictions or the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) in connection with the offer and sale of the Shares.

(v) There has not occurred any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business or operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, from that set forth in the Disclosure Package.

(w) There are no legal or governmental proceedings pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or to which any of the properties of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject (i) other than proceedings accurately disclosed in all material respects in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package and proceedings that would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, or on the power or ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate the transactions contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package or (ii) that are required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Disclosure Package and are not so described in all material respects; and there are no statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Disclosure Package or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not described in all material respects or filed as required.

(x) The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package will not be required to register as an “investment company” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(y) Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (“Environmental Laws”), (ii) have received all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses and (iii) are in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval, except where such noncompliance with Environmental Laws, failure to receive required permits, licenses or other approvals or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

 

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(z) Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties) that would reasonably be expected to, singly or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

(aa) There are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and any person granting such person the right to require the Company to file a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any securities of the Company or to require the Company to include such securities with the Shares registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, except those contracts, agreements and understandings disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, all of which have been validly waived in connection with the offering, issuance and sale of the Shares contemplated hereby.

(bb) (i) None of the Company, its subsidiaries, or any director or officer thereof, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee, agent controlled affiliates or representative of the Company or of any of its subsidiaries or controlled affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the payment, giving or receipt of money, property, gifts or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any government official (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) in order to influence official action, or to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws; (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries and controlled affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have instituted and maintain and will continue to maintain policies and procedures reasonably designed to promote and achieve compliance with such laws and with the representations and warranties contained herein; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money, or anything else of value, to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws.

(cc) The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency

 

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(collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(dd) (i) None of the Company, any of its subsidiaries, or any director or officer thereof, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any employee, agent, controlled affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or controlled affiliates, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by one or more Persons that are:

(A) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), or

(B) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

  (ii) The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

(A) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

(B) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

  (iii) For the past 5 years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(ee) Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in each of the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, (i) the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, direct or contingent, nor entered into any material transaction that is required to be disclosed in a Form 8-K; (ii) the Company has not purchased any of its outstanding capital stock, other than from its employees or other service providers in connection with the termination of their service pursuant to equity compensation plans or agreements disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package or in connection with the exercise of the Company’s right of first refusal upon a proposed transfer, nor declared, paid or

 

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otherwise made any dividend or distribution of any kind on its capital stock other than ordinary and customary dividends; and (iii) there has not been any material change in the capital stock (other than the exercise of equity awards or grants of equity awards or forfeiture of equity awards outstanding as of such respective dates as of which information is given in each of the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, in each case granted pursuant to the equity compensation plans disclosed in the Registration Statement and Disclosure Package), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except in each case as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package.

(ff) The Company and its subsidiaries do not own any real property. The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, have good and marketable title to all personal property owned by them that is material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects, in each case, except (i) such as are disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package; (ii) for minor defects in title that do not interfere with its ability to conduct its business as currently conducted or to utilize such properties for their intended purposes; or (iii) as individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse effect. Any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, are held by them under valid, subsisting and, to the Company’s knowledge, enforceable leases, in each case, except (i) such as are disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package; (ii) for minor defects in title that do not interfere with its ability to conduct its business as currently conducted or to utilize such properties for their intended purposes; or (iii) as individually or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to result in a material adverse effect.

(gg) The Company and its subsidiaries own or possess, or can acquire on commercially reasonable terms, sufficient rights to use all patents, patent rights, licenses, inventions, copyrights, know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks, trade names, domain names and other intellectual property, whether or not registered (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) currently employed by them in connection with the business as currently operated by them except where the failure to own, possess, have the right to use or the ability to acquire any of the foregoing would not result in a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of any claims, action, suit or proceeding of infringement of or conflict with asserted rights of others, with respect to any of the foregoing which action, suit, proceeding or claim, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. The Company and each of its subsidiaries has taken reasonable steps in accordance with customary industry practice to maintain the confidentiality of all Intellectual Property, the value of which to the Company or any of its subsidiaries is contingent upon maintaining the confidentiality thereof.

 

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(hh) The Company and its subsidiaries have used all software and other materials distributed under a “free,” “open source,” or similar licensing model (including but not limited to the MIT License, Apache License, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License and GNU Affero General Public License) (“Open Source Software”) in compliance with all license terms applicable to such Open Source Software, except where the failure to comply would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has used or distributed any Open Source Software in a manner that requires or has required (i) the Company or any of its subsidiaries to permit reverse engineering of any products or services of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any software code or other technology owned by the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (ii) any products or services of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any software code or other technology owned by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, to be (A) disclosed or distributed in source code form, (B) licensed for the purpose of making derivative works, or (C) redistributed at no charge, except, in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, as would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

(ii) The Company and each of its subsidiaries have complied, and are presently in compliance, with the Company’s privacy and security policies and with all obligations, laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, transfer, storage, protection, disposal or disclosure of personally identifiable information or any other information collected from or provided by third parties, except to the extent that the failure to do so would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable steps to protect the information technology systems and data used in connection with the operation of the Company or its subsidiaries against unauthorized access, use, modification, disclosure or other misuse, and have implemented backup and disaster recovery technology consistent with industry standards and practices in all material respects. To the Company’s knowledge, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, there has been no security breach or attack or other compromise of or relating to any such information technology system or data that has had, or which reasonably could be expected to have, a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

(jj) No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and Disclosure Package, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent; and the Company is not aware of any existing, threatened or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors that could have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole.

(kk) The Company and each of its subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and neither the Company nor any of its

 

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subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and Disclosure Package.

(ll) The Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, possess all certificates, authorizations and permits issued by the appropriate federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses, except where the failure to obtain such certificates, authorizations and permits would not, individually or the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and Disclosure Package.

(mm) The Company and each of its subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date of this Agreement or have requested extensions thereof and have paid all taxes required to be paid thereon (except for cases in which the failure to file or pay would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, or except as currently being contested in good faith and for which reserves required by generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) have been created in the financial statements of the Company), and no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries which has had (nor does the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have any notice or knowledge of any tax deficiency which could reasonably be expected to be determined adversely to the Company or its subsidiaries and which could reasonably be expected to have) a material adverse effect on the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole.

(nn) The consolidated financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in each of the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and present fairly in all material respects the consolidated financial position of the Company and its subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of their operations and cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby; and the other financial information included or incorporated by reference in each of the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby.

 

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(oo) The Company and each of its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) the interactive data in XBRL included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement is accurate. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and Disclosure Package, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (i) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (ii) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, which could reasonably be expected to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(pp) The Company maintains a system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

(qq) Deloitte & Touche LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries filed with the Commission as a part of the Registration Statement and included in the Disclosure Package, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

(rr) The statistical, industry-related and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package are based on or derived from sources which the Company reasonably and in good faith believes are reliable and accurate, and such data is consistent with the sources from which they are derived.

(ss) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any securities rated by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization,” as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Manager or counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Manager.

 

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3. Sale and Delivery of Shares.

(a) Subject to the terms and conditions and in reliance upon the representations and warranties herein set forth, the Company agrees to issue and sell Shares from time to time through the Manager, acting as sales agent, and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to sell, as sales agent for the Company, the Shares on the following terms.

(i) The Shares are to be sold on a daily basis or otherwise as shall be agreed to by the Company and the Manager on any day that (A) is a trading day for the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) (other than a day on which the Nasdaq is scheduled to close prior to its regular weekday closing time), (B) the Company has instructed the Manager by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail) (such instruction, a “Placement Notice”) to make such sales and (C) the Company has satisfied its obligations under Section 6 of this Agreement. The Company will designate the maximum amount of the Shares to be sold by the Manager daily (in any event not in excess of the amount available for issuance under the Prospectus and the currently effective Registration Statement) and the minimum price per Share at which such Shares may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, the Manager shall use its reasonable efforts to sell on a particular day all of the Shares designated for the sale by the Company on such day. The gross sales price of the Shares sold under this Section 3(a) shall be the market price for shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock sold by the Manager under this Section 3(a) on the Nasdaq at the time of sale of such Shares.

(ii) The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Manager will be successful in selling the Shares, (B) the Manager will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Manager to use its reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required under this Agreement, and (C) the Manager shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Manager and the Company.

(iii) The Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Manager shall not be obligated to use its reasonable efforts to sell, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing. The Company or the Manager may, upon notice to the other party hereto by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail), suspend or terminate the offering of the Shares for any reason and at any time; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.

 

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(iv) The Manager hereby covenants and agrees not to make any sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company, pursuant to this Section 3(a), other than (A) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions between members of the Nasdaq that qualify for delivery of a Prospectus to the Nasdaq in accordance with Rule 153 of the 1933 Act Regulations and (B) such other sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company in its capacity as agent of the Company as shall be agreed by the Company and the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

(v) The compensation to the Manager for sales of the Shares with respect to which the Manager acts as sales agent under this Agreement shall be up to 2.0% of the gross sales price of the Shares sold pursuant to this Section 3(a) and payable as described in the succeeding subsection (vi) below. The foregoing rate of compensation shall not apply when the Manager acts as principal, in which case the Company may sell Shares to the Manager as principal at a price agreed upon at the relevant Applicable Time pursuant to a Terms Agreement. The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales (the “Transaction Fees”), shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

(vi) The Manager shall provide written confirmation (which may be by facsimile or electronic mail) to the Company following the close of trading on the Nasdaq each day in which the Shares are sold under this Section 3(a) setting forth the number of the Shares sold on such day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds and the Net Proceeds to the Company, and the compensation payable by the Company to the Manager with respect to such sales. Such compensation shall be set forth and invoiced in periodic statements from the Manager to the Company, with payment to be made by the Company promptly after its receipt thereof.

(vii) Settlement for sales of the Shares pursuant to this Section 3(a) will occur on the second Business Day following the date on which such sales are made (each such day, a “Settlement Date”). On each Settlement Date, the Shares sold through the Manager for settlement on such date shall be issued and delivered by the Company to the Manager against payment of the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees for the sale of such Shares. Settlement for all such Shares shall be effected by free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) in return for payments in same day funds delivered to the account designated by the Company. If the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) shall default on its obligation to deliver the Shares on any Settlement Date, the Company shall (A) indemnify and hold the Manager harmless against any loss, claim or damage arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (B) pay the Manager any commission to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default. If the Manager breaches this Agreement by failing to deliver the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees to the Company on any Settlement Date for the Shares delivered by the Company, the Manager will pay the Company interest based on the effective overnight federal funds rate on such unpaid amount less any compensation due to the Manager.

 

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(viii) At each Applicable Time, Settlement Date and Representation Date (as defined in Section 4(k)), the Company shall be deemed to have affirmed each representation and warranty contained in this Agreement as if such representation and warranty were made as of such date, modified to incorporate the disclosures contained in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package. Any obligation of the Manager to use its reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

(b) If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares pursuant to this Agreement but other than as set forth in Section 3(a) of this Agreement (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Manager of the proposed terms of such Placement. If the Manager, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company wishes to accept amended terms, the Manager and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement will not be binding on the Company or the Manager unless and until the Company and the Manager have each executed such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control.

(c) Each sale of the Shares to the Manager shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and, if applicable, a Terms Agreement, which will provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, the Manager. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by the Manager. The commitment of the Manager to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties of the Company herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth. Each Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by the Manager pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters acting together with the Manager in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Time of Delivery”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares. Such Terms Agreement shall also specify any requirements for opinions of counsel, accountants’ letters and officers’ certificates pursuant to Section 6 of this Agreement and any other information or documents required by the Manager.

(d) Under no circumstances shall the number and aggregate amount of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement exceed (i) the aggregate amount set forth in Section 1, (ii) the number of shares of the Class A Common Stock available for issuance under the currently effective Registration Statement or (iii) the number and aggregate amount of the Shares authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing.

 

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(e) If either party has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Shares, it shall promptly notify the other party and sales of the Shares under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of each party.

(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares that would be sold, and the Manager shall not be obligated to sell, during any period in which the Company’s insider trading policy, as it exists at the Execution Time, would prohibit the purchases or sales of the Company’s Common Stock by its officers or directors, or during any other period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information; provided that, unless otherwise agreed between the Company and the Manager, for purposes of this paragraph (f) such period shall be deemed to end on the date on which the Company’s next subsequent Annual Report on Form 10-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as the case may be, is filed with the Commission.

4. Agreements. The Company agrees with the Manager that:

(a) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or Rule 153) to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will not file any amendment of the Registration Statement or supplement (including the Prospectus Supplement) to the Base Prospectus unless the Company has furnished to the Manager a copy for its review prior to filing and will not file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which the Manager reasonably objects. The Company has properly completed the Prospectus, in a form approved by the Manager, and filed such Prospectus, as amended at the Execution Time, with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) by the Execution Time and will cause any supplement to the Prospectus to be properly completed, in a form approved by the Manager, and will file such supplement with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) within the time period prescribed thereby and will provide evidence satisfactory to the Manager of such timely filing. The Company will promptly advise the Manager (i) when the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, shall have been filed (if required) with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), (ii) when, during any period when the delivery of a prospectus (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) is required under the Securities Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, any amendment to the Registration Statement shall have been filed or become effective, (iii) of any request by the Commission or its staff for any amendment of the Registration Statement, or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or for any supplement to the Prospectus or for any additional information, (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any notice objecting to its use or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose and (v) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to

 

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prevent the issuance of any such stop order or the occurrence of any such suspension or objection to the use of the Registration Statement and, upon such issuance, occurrence or notice of objection, to obtain as soon as possible the withdrawal of such stop order or relief from such occurrence or objection, including, if necessary, by filing an amendment to the Registration Statement or a new registration statement and using its reasonable best efforts to have such amendment or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable.

(b) If, at any time on or after an Applicable Time but prior to the related Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, any event occurs as a result of which the Disclosure Package would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made or the circumstances then prevailing not misleading, the Company will (i) notify promptly the Manager so that any use of the Disclosure Package may cease until it is amended or supplemented; (ii) amend or supplement the Disclosure Package to correct such statement or omission; and (iii) supply any amendment or supplement to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

(c) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or Rule 153) to be delivered under the Securities Act, any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made at such time not misleading, or if it shall be necessary to amend the Registration Statement, file a new registration statement or supplement the Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or the respective rules thereunder, including in connection with use or delivery of the Prospectus, the Company promptly will (i) notify the Manager of any such event, (ii) prepare and file with the Commission, subject to the second sentence of paragraph (a) of this Section 4, an amendment or supplement or new registration statement which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance, (iii) use its reasonable efforts to have any amendment to the Registration Statement or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable in order to avoid any disruption in use of the Prospectus and (iv) supply any supplemented Prospectus to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

(d) As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Manager an earnings statement or statements of the Company and its subsidiaries which will satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158.

(e) The Company will furnish to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, without charge, signed copies of the Registration Statement (including exhibits thereto) and, so long as delivery of a prospectus by the Manager or dealer may be required by the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or Rule 153), as many copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any supplement thereto as the Manager may reasonably request.

 

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The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

(f) The Company will arrange, if necessary, for the qualification of the Shares for sale under the laws of such jurisdictions as the Manager may designate and will maintain such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that in no event shall the Company be obligated to qualify to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not now so qualified or to take any action that would subject it to service of process in suits, other than those arising out of the offering or sale of the Shares, in any jurisdiction where it is not now so subject.

(g) The Company agrees that, unless it has or shall have obtained the prior written consent of the Manager, and the Manager agrees with the Company that, unless it has or shall have obtained, as the case may be, the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405) required to be filed by the Company with the Commission or retained by the Company under Rule 433; provided that the prior written consent of the parties hereto shall be deemed to have been given in respect of the Free Writing Prospectuses included in Schedule I hereto. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Manager or the Company is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company agrees that (i) it has treated and will treat, as the case may be, each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and (ii) it has complied and will comply, as the case may be, with the requirements of Rules 164 and 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including in respect of timely filing with the Commission, legending and record keeping.

(h) The Company will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, (or enter into any transaction which is designed to, or might reasonably be expected to, result in the disposition of (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any person in privity with the Company or any affiliate of the Company) directly or indirectly, including the filing (or participation in the filing) of a registration statement with the Commission in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act, any other shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable, or exchangeable for, shares of Common Stock; or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction without (i) giving the Manager at least five Business Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed transaction and the date of such proposed transaction and (ii) the Manager suspending acting under this Agreement for such period of time requested by the Company or as deemed appropriate by the Manager in light of the proposed transaction; provided, however, that the Company or any affiliate of the Company, as the case may be, may issue and sell Common Stock pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, any sales plan by an affiliate of the Company pursuant to Rule 10b5-1, employee equity incentive or stock option plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan of the Company in effect at the Execution Time and the Company may issue Common Stock issuable upon the conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants outstanding at the Execution Time.

 

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(i) The Company will not (i) take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, unlawful stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, purchase or pay any person (other than as contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares.

(j) The Company will, at any time during the term of this Agreement, as supplemented from time to time, advise the Manager immediately after it shall have received notice or obtain knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Manager pursuant to Section 6 herein.

(k) Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder), and each time that (i) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares), (ii) the Company files an Annual Report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act, (iii) the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act, (iv) the Company files a Current Report on Form 8-K under the Exchange Act containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release or other information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act or (v) the Shares are delivered to the Manager as principal at the Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement (such commencement or recommencement date and each such date referred to in (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) above, a “Representation Date”), the Company shall, if requested by the Manager, furnish or cause to be furnished to the Manager (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending and (2) the Manager reasonably determines that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material to a holder of Common Stock or to an offering of the Shares) within two (2) Business Days of any Representation Date a certificate dated and delivered the date of such commencement or recommencement, effectiveness of such amendment, the date of filing with the Commission of such supplement or other document, the Time of Delivery, or promptly upon request, as the case may be, in form satisfactory to the Manager to the effect that the statements contained in the certificate referred to in Section 6(d) of this Agreement which were last furnished to the Manager are true and correct at the time of such commencement or recommencement, amendment, supplement, filing, or delivery, as the case may be, as though made at and as of such time (except that such statements shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to such time) or, in lieu of such certificate, a certificate of the same tenor as the certificate referred to in said Section 6(d), modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such certificate. The requirement to deliver a certificate under this Section 4(k) with respect to clauses (i),

 

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(iii), (iv) or (v) of the definition of Representation Date shall be automatically waived at a time at which no offering of Shares under this Agreement is ongoing, no Placement Notice is pending or no Terms Agreement is in effect (a “Waiver”), which Waiver, in each case, shall not apply the next time the Company delivers its next Placement Notice or enters into a Terms Agreement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on a Waiver and did not provide the Manager with a certificate under this Section 4(k), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Manager sells any Shares, the Company shall provide the Manager with a certificate required under this Section 4(k), dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(l) On the initial Representation Date and thereafter within two (2) Business Days of each subsequent Representation Date that the Company delivers a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to Manager Counsel (as defined below) a written opinion and negative assurance letter of Cooley LLP, outside counsel to the Company (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to the Manager, dated the date that such written opinion and negative assurance letter are delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 6(b) of this Agreement, but modified as necessary to incorporate the disclosures contained in, or incorporated by reference into, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinion and negative assurance letter; provided, however, following the delivery of the first written opinion and negative assurance letter of Company Counsel under this Section 4(l), Company Counsel may, in lieu of the requirement to deliver such legal written opinion and negative assurance letter, furnish the Manager a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Manager may rely on a prior written opinion and negative assurance letter delivered under this Section 4(l) to the same extent as if each were dated the date of such Reliance Letter (except that such statements in such prior opinion and negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date);

(m) On the initial Representation Date and thereafter within two (2) Business Days of each subsequent Representation Date that the Company delivers a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k), Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel to the Manager (“Manager Counsel”), shall deliver a written opinion and negative assurance letter, dated the date that such written opinion and negative assurance letter are delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 6(c) of this Agreement, but modified as necessary to incorporate the disclosures contained in, or incorporated by reference into, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinion and negative assurance letter; provided, however, following the delivery of the first written opinion and negative assurance letter of Manager Counsel under this Section 4(m), Manager Counsel may, in lieu of the requirement to deliver such legal written opinion and negative assurance letter, furnish the Manager a Reliance Letter to the effect that the Manager may rely on a prior written opinion and negative assurance letter delivered under this Section 4(m) to the same extent as if each were dated the date of such Reliance Letter (except that such statements in such prior opinion and negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date); and

 

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(n) On the initial Representation Date and thereafter within two (2) Business Days of each subsequent Representation Date that the Company delivers a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to Manager Counsel a letter from Deloitte & Touche LLP, or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Manager forthwith (the “Accountants”), dated the date such letter is delivered, in form satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the letter referred to in Section 6(e) of this Agreement but modified to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(o) Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder), and at each Representation Date, unless a Waiver is applicable, the Company will conduct a due diligence session, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, which shall include representatives of the management and the independent accountants of the Company. The Company shall cooperate timely with any reasonable due diligence request from or review conducted by the Manager or its agents from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and available documents and access to appropriate corporate officers and the Company’s agents during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, and timely furnishing or causing to be furnished such certificates, letters and opinions from the Company, its officers and its agents, as the Manager may reasonably request.

(p) The Company consents to the Manager trading in the Common Stock for the Manager’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

(q) The Company will disclose in its Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, the number of Shares sold through the Manager under this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company to the Manager with respect to sales of Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter.

(r) If, to the knowledge of the Company, the conditions set forth in Section 6(a), 6(f) or 6(h) shall not be true and correct on the applicable Settlement Date, the Company will offer to any person who has agreed to purchase Shares from the Company as the result of an offer to purchase solicited by the Manager the right to refuse to purchase and pay for such Shares.

 

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(s) Each acceptance by the Company of an offer to purchase the Shares hereunder, and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement, shall be deemed to be an affirmation to the Manager that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such acceptance or of such Terms Agreement as though made at and as of such date, and an undertaking that such representations and warranties will be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such acceptance or as of the Time of Delivery relating to such sale, as the case may be, as though made at and as of such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(t) The Company shall ensure that there are at all times sufficient shares of Common Stock to provide for the issuance, free of any preemptive rights, out of its authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock or shares of Common Stock held in treasury, of the maximum aggregate number of Shares authorized for issuance by the Board pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed for trading on the Nasdaq and to maintain such listing.

(u) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Securities Act, the Company will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and the regulations thereunder.

(v) The Company shall cooperate with Manager and use its reasonable efforts to permit the Shares to be eligible for clearance and settlement through the facilities of DTC.

(w) The Company will apply the Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner set forth in the Prospectus Supplement.

(x) On the initial Representation Date and, if the financial statements and pro forma financial information of Dataxu, Inc. (“Dataxu”) are included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus at such time, thereafter within two (2) Business Days of each subsequent Representation Date that the Company delivers a certificate pursuant to Section 4(k), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to Manager Counsel a letter from PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Manager forthwith (“PwC”), dated the date such letter is delivered, in form satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the letter referred to in Section 6(k) of this Agreement but modified to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

5. Payment of Expenses.

(a) The Company agrees to pay the costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereby are consummated, including without limitation: (i) the preparation, printing or reproduction and filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits thereto), the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and each amendment or supplement to any of them; (ii) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery (including postage, air freight charges and charges for counting and packaging) of such copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and all amendments or supplements to any of them, as may, in each case, be reasonably requested for use in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares; (iii) the preparation, printing, authentication, issuance and delivery of certificates for the Shares, including any stamp or transfer taxes in connection with the original issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery of this Agreement, any blue sky memorandum and all other agreements or documents printed (or reproduced) and delivered in connection with the offering of the Shares; (v) the registration of the

 

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Shares under the Exchange Act and the listing of the Shares on the Nasdaq; (vi) any registration or qualification of the Shares for offer and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of the several states (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such registration and qualification); (vii) any filings required to be made with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such filings); (viii) the transportation and other expenses incurred by or on behalf of Company representatives in connection with presentations to prospective purchasers of the Shares; (ix) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants and the fees and expenses of counsel (including local and special counsel) for the Company; (x) the reasonable documented out-of-pocket expenses of the Manager, including the reasonable fees, disbursements and expenses of counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement, the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Disclosure Package and ongoing services in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder; and (xi) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder.

6. Conditions to the Obligations of the Manager. The obligations of the Manager under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be subject to (i) the accuracy of the representations and warranties on the part of the Company contained herein as of the Execution Time, each Representation Date, and as of each Applicable Time, Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, (ii) to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

(a) The Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, required by Rule 424 to be filed with the Commission have been filed in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b) with respect to any sale of Shares; any other material required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act, shall have been filed with the Commission within the applicable time periods prescribed for such filings by Rule 433; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or threatened.

(b) The Company shall have requested and caused the Company Counsel, to furnish to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, its opinion and negative assurance letter, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager.

In rendering such opinion, such counsel may rely (A) as to matters involving the application of laws of any jurisdiction other than the States of California, Delaware or New York, or the Federal laws of the United States, to the extent they deem proper and specified in such opinion, upon the opinion of other counsel of good standing whom they believe to be reliable and who are satisfactory to counsel for the Manager and (B) as to matters of fact, to the extent they deem proper, on certificates of responsible officers of the Company and public officials. References to the Prospectus in this paragraph (b) shall also include any supplements thereto at the Settlement Date.

 

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(c) The Manager shall have received from Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel for the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(m) of this Agreement, such opinion or opinions, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, with respect to the issuance and sale of the Shares, the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package and other related matters as the Manager may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for the purpose of enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(d) The Company shall have furnished or caused to be furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(k) of this Agreement, (A) a certificate of the Company, signed by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, to the effect that the signers of such certificate have carefully examined the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package and any supplements or amendments thereto and this Agreement and that:

(i) the representations and warranties of the Company in this Agreement are true and correct on and as of such date with the same effect as if made on such date and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to such date;

(ii) no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened; and

(iii) since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Disclosure Package, there has been no material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), prospects, earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package; and

(B) a certificate of the Company, signed by the principal financial officer of the Company, dated as of such date, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager;

(e) The Company shall have requested and caused the Accountants to have furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(n) hereof and to the extent requested by the Manager in connection with any offering of the Shares, letters (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Manager), dated as of such date, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, containing statements and information of the type ordinarily included in accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters with respect to the financial statements and certain financial information contained in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package.

(f) Since the respective dates as of which information is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, except as otherwise stated therein, there shall not have been (i) any change or decrease specified in the letter or letters referred to in paragraph (e) of this Section 6 or (ii) any change, or any development involving a prospective change, in or affecting the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings,

 

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business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package the effect of which, in any case referred to in clause (i) or (ii) above, is, in the sole judgment of the Manager, so material and adverse as to make it impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Registration Statement (exclusive of any amendment thereof) and the Disclosure Package.

(g) The Company shall have paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the Shares within the time period required by Rule 456(b)(1)(i) of the Securities Act without regard to the proviso therein and otherwise in accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) of the Securities Act and, if applicable, shall have updated the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in accordance with Rule 456(b)(1)(ii) either in a post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or on the cover page of a prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b).

(h) Between the Execution Time and the time of any sale of Shares through the Manager, there shall not have been any decrease in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined for purposes of Rule 436(g) under the Securities Act) or any notice given of any intended or potential decrease in any such rating or of a possible change in any such rating that does not indicate the direction of the possible change.

(i) FINRA shall not have raised any objection with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of the terms and arrangements under this Agreement.

(j) The Shares shall have been listed and admitted and authorized for trading on the Nasdaq, and satisfactory evidence of such actions shall have been provided to the Manager.

(k) The Company shall have requested and caused PwC to have furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(x) hereof and to the extent requested by the Manager in connection with any offering of the Shares, letters (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Manager), dated as of such date, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Manager, containing (i) statements confirming that such firm is an independent certified public accounting firm with respect to Dataxu, (ii) statements regarding the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial statements of Dataxu and the pro forma financial statements relating to the Company’s acquisition of Dataxu, in each case included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Disclosure Package, and (iii) statements and other information ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings.

(l) Prior to each Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, as applicable, the Company shall have furnished to the Manager such further information, certificates and documents as the Manager may reasonably request.

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 6 shall not have been fulfilled when and as provided in this Agreement, or if any of the opinions and certificates mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, this Agreement and all obligations of the Manager hereunder may be canceled at, or at any time prior to, any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, as applicable, by the Manager. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or by telephone or facsimile confirmed in writing.

The documents required to be delivered by this Section 6 shall be delivered at the office of Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, counsel for the Manager, at 1600 El Camino Real, Menlo Park, CA 94025, on each such date as provided in this Agreement.

 

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7. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Manager, the directors, officers, employees, affiliates and agents of the Manager and each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any and all losses, claims, damages or liabilities, joint or several (including, without limitation, any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with defending or investigating any such action or claim) (collectively “Losses”), to which they or any of them may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other Federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such Losses (or actions in respect thereof) caused by any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the registration statement for the registration of the Shares as originally filed or in any amendment thereof, or in the Base Prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus, or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or in any amendment thereof or supplement thereto or arise out of or are based upon the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, and agrees to reimburse each such indemnified party, as incurred, for any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by them in connection with investigating or defending any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action; provided, however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any such loss, claim, damage or liability arises out of or is based upon any such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made therein in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion therein. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company may otherwise have. The Company acknowledges that the name and contact information of the Manager in the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus constitute the only information furnished in writing by or on behalf of the Manager for inclusion in the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

(b) The Manager agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of the directors and officers of the Company, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to the same extent as the foregoing indemnity from the Company to the Manager, but only with reference to written information relating to the Manager furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the documents referred to in the foregoing indemnity. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability which the Manager may otherwise have.

(c) Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 7 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under this Section 7, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the failure so to notify the indemnifying party (i) will not relieve it from liability under paragraph (a) or (b) above unless and to the extent it did not otherwise learn of such action and such failure results in the forfeiture by the indemnifying party of substantial rights and defenses and (ii) will not, in any event, relieve the indemnifying party from any obligations to any indemnified party other than the indemnification obligation provided in paragraph (a) or (b) above. The

 

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indemnifying party shall be entitled to appoint counsel of the indemnifying party’s choice at the indemnifying party’s expense to represent the indemnified party in any action for which indemnification is sought (in which case the indemnifying party shall not thereafter be responsible for the fees and expenses of any separate counsel retained by the indemnified party or parties except as set forth below); provided, however, that such counsel shall be reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party. Notwithstanding the indemnifying party’s election to appoint counsel to represent the indemnified party in an action, the indemnified party shall have the right to employ separate counsel (including local counsel), and the indemnifying party shall bear the reasonable fees, costs and expenses of such separate counsel if (i) the use of counsel chosen by the indemnifying party to represent the indemnified party would present such counsel with a conflict of interest, (ii) the actual or potential defendants in, or targets of, any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, (iii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of the institution of such action or (iv) the indemnifying party shall authorize the indemnified party to employ separate counsel at the expense of the indemnifying party. It is understood that the indemnifying party shall not, in respect of the legal expenses of any indemnified party in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate firm (in addition to any local counsel) for all such persons to be indemnified under 7(a) or 7(b), and that, in each case, all such fees and expenses shall be reimbursed as they are incurred. Such firm shall be designated in writing by the Manager, in the case of parties indemnified pursuant to Section 7(a), and by the Company, in the case of parties indemnified pursuant to Section 7(b). The indemnifying party shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party from and against any loss or liability by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of counsel as contemplated by this paragraph, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. An indemnifying party will not, without the prior written consent of the indemnified parties, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment with respect to any pending or threatened claim, action, suit or proceeding in respect of which indemnification or contribution may be sought hereunder (whether or not the indemnified parties are actual or potential parties to such claim or action) unless such settlement, compromise or consent: (i) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such claim, action, suit or proceeding and (ii) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act, by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

 

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(d) In the event that the indemnity provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section 7 is unavailable to or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party for any reason, the Company and the Manager agree to contribute to the aggregate Losses to which the Company and the Manager may be subject in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and by the Manager on the other from the offering of the Shares. If the allocation provided by the immediately preceding sentence is unavailable for any reason, the Company and the Manager severally shall contribute in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only such relative benefits but also the relative fault of the Company on the one hand and of the Manager on the other in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such Losses as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. Benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the total Net Proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by it, and benefits received by the Manager shall be deemed to be equal to the total underwriting discounts and commissions, in each case as determined by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement. Relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any untrue or any alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information provided by the Company on the one hand or the Manager on the other, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such untrue statement or omission. The Company and the Manager agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution were determined by pro rata allocation or any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to above. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph (d), in no event shall the Manager be required to contribute any amount in excess of the amount by which the underwriting discount or commission, as the case may be, applicable to the Shares purchased by the Manager hereunder exceeds the amount of any damages that the Manager has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 7, each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act and each director, officer, employee, affiliate and agent of the Manager shall have the same rights to contribution as the Manager, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, each officer of the Company who shall have signed the Registration Statement and each director of the Company shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the applicable terms and conditions of this paragraph (d).

8. Termination.

(a) The Company shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) if Shares have been sold through the Manager for the Company, then Section 4(s) shall remain in full force and effect, (ii) with respect to any pending sale, through the Manager for the Company, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the Manager, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (iii) the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15 and 16 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

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(b) The Manager shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15 and 16 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination; provided, however, for the avoidance of doubt, to the extent a Terms Agreement is outstanding, all provisions of this Agreement and the obligations of the parties hereunder shall survive with respect to the transactions contemplated by such Terms Agreement until such Terms Agreement is terminated pursuant to Section 8(e) or the purchase of Shares by the Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement is consummated.

(c) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 8(a) or 8(b) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Sections 2, 5, 7 and 10 shall remain in full force and effect.

(d) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Manager or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date or Time of Delivery for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 3(a)(vii) of this Agreement.

(e) In the case of any purchase of Shares by the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of the Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination, in the absolute discretion of the Manager, by notice given to the Company prior to the Time of Delivery relating to such Shares, if at any time prior to such delivery and payment (i) trading in the Company’s Class A Common Stock shall have been suspended by the Commission or the Nasdaq or any other securities exchange on which the Class A Common Stock generally trades or trading generally on any of the NYSE, Nasdaq, the Chicago Board of Options Exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange or the Chicago Board of Trade or other relevant exchanges shall have been suspended or limited or minimum prices shall have been established on either of such exchanges, (ii) a material disruption in securities settlement, payment or clearance services in the United States or other relevant jurisdictions shall have occurred, (iii) a banking moratorium shall have been declared either by Federal or New York State authorities or (iv) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities, declaration by the United States of a national emergency or war, or other calamity or crisis the effect of which on financial markets is such as to make it, in the sole judgment of the Manager, impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

 

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9. Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.

(a) In the event that any Manager that is a Covered Entity becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from such Manager of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

(b) In the event that any Manager that is a Covered Entity or a BHC Act Affiliate of such Manager becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against such Manager are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

10. Representations and Indemnities to Survive. The respective agreements, representations, warranties, indemnities and other statements of the Company or its officers and of the Manager set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by the Manager or the Company or any of the officers, directors, employees, affiliates, agents or controlling persons referred to in Section 7 hereof, and will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares.

11. Notices. All communications hereunder will be in writing and effective only on receipt, and, if sent to the Manager, will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to the Citigroup Global Markets Inc. General Counsel (fax no.: (646) 291-1469) and confirmed to the General Counsel, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York, 10013, Attention: General Counsel; or, if sent to the Company, will be delivered, mailed or sent to Roku, Inc., 150 Winchester Circle, Los Gatos, California 95032, Attention: General Counsel.

12. Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers, directors, employees, agents and controlling persons referred to in Section 8 hereof, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.

13. No Fiduciary Duty. The Company hereby acknowledges that (a) the purchase and sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement is an arm’s-length commercial transaction between the Company, on the one hand, and the Manager and any affiliate through which it may be acting, on the other, (b) the Manager is acting solely as sales agent and/or principal in connection with the purchase and sale of the Company’s securities and not as a fiduciary of the Company and (c) the Company’s engagement of the Manager in connection with the offering and the process leading up to the offering is as independent contractors and not in any other capacity. Furthermore, the Company agrees that it is solely responsible for making its own judgments in connection with the offering (irrespective of whether the Manager has advised or is currently advising the Company on related or other matters). The Company agrees that it will not claim that the Manager has rendered advisory services of any nature or respect, or owe an agency, fiduciary or similar duty to the Company, in connection with such transaction or the process leading thereto.

 

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14. Integration. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement supersede all prior agreements and understandings (whether written or oral) between the Company and the Manager with respect to the subject matter hereof.

15. Applicable Law. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related thereto will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to contracts made and to be performed within the State of New York.

16. Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby.

17. Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in one or more counterparts, each of which shall constitute an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same agreement. Delivery of a signed counterpart of this Agreement by facsimile or other electronic transmission (including in “.pdf” format) shall constitute valid and sufficient delivery thereof.

18. Headings. The section headings used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof or thereof.

19. Definitions. Whenever the words “contained in,” “described in,” “disclosed in,” “incorporated in” or words of like import are used in this Agreement, they shall be deemed to include any documents incorporated by reference, whether or not such words are explicitly included. The terms that follow, when used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, shall have the meanings indicated.

Applicable Time” shall mean, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any relevant Terms Agreement.

Base Prospectus” shall mean the base prospectus referred to in Section 2(a) above contained in the Registration Statement at the Execution Time.

BHC Act Affiliate” shall mean “affiliate” as defined in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k).

Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a legal holiday or a day on which banking institutions or trust companies are authorized or obligated by law to close in New York City.

Commission” shall mean the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Covered Entity” shall mean any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b), (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b) or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b).

 

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Default Right” shall mean default right as defined and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable.

Disclosure Package” shall mean (i) the Base Prospectus, (ii) the Prospectus Supplement, (iii) the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, identified in Schedule I hereto, (iv) the public offering price of Shares sold at the relevant Applicable Time and (v) any other Free Writing Prospectus that the parties hereto shall hereafter expressly agree in writing to treat as part of the Disclosure Package.

Effective Date” shall mean each date and time that the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment or amendments thereto became or becomes effective.

Exchange Act” shall mean the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

Execution Time” shall mean the date and time that this Agreement is executed and delivered by the parties hereto.

Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean a free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 405.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433.

Prospectus” shall mean the Base Prospectus, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement.

Prospectus Supplement” shall mean the most recent prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that was first filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) at or prior to the Execution Time.

Registration Statement” shall mean the registration statement referred to in Section 2(a) above, including exhibits and financial statements and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and deemed part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, as amended on each Effective Date and, in the event any post-effective amendment thereto becomes effective, shall also mean such registration statement as so amended.

Rule 153” “Rule 158”, “Rule 163”, “Rule 164”, “Rule 172”, “Rule 405”, “Rule 415”, “Rule 424”, “Rule 430B” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act.

Securities Act” shall mean the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

U.S. Special Resolution Regime” shall mean each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

32


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to us the enclosed duplicate hereof, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall represent a binding agreement among the Company and the Manager.

 

Very truly yours,
ROKU, INC.
By:  

/s/ Steve Louden

Name:   Steve Louden
Title:   Chief Financial Officer

[Signature Page to Equity Distribution Agreement]


The foregoing Agreement is

hereby confirmed and accepted

as of the date first written above.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

By: Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

 

By:  

/s/ Brian Yick

Name:  

Brian Yick

Title:   Managing Director

 

[Signature Page to Equity Distribution Agreement]


SCHEDULE I

Schedule of Free Writing Prospectuses included in the Disclosure Package

None.


ANNEX I

ROKU, INC.

Class A Common Stock

FORM OF TERMS AGREEMENT

______, 20__

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

388 Greenwich Street

New York, New York, 10013

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Roku, Inc. (the “Company”) proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated [•], 2019 (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”), between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc., to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. the securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Purchased Shares”) [, and solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, to grant to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. the option to purchase the additional securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Additional Shares”)]. [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option] Capitalized terms used herein without definition shall have the meanings assigned thereto in to the Equity Distribution Agreement.

[Citigroup Global Markets Inc. shall have the right to purchase from the Company all or a portion of the Additional Shares as may be necessary to cover over-allotments made in connection with the offering of the Purchased Shares, at the same purchase price per share to be paid by Citigroup Global Markets Inc. to the Company for the Purchased Shares. This option may be exercised by Citigroup Global Markets Inc. at any time (but not more than once) on or before the thirtieth day following the date hereof, by written notice to the Company. Such notice shall set forth the aggregate number of shares of Additional Shares as to which the option is being exercised, and the date and time when the Additional Shares are to be delivered (such date and time being herein referred to as the “Option Closing Date”); provided, however, that the Option Closing Date shall not be earlier than the Time of Delivery (as set forth in the Schedule I hereto) nor earlier than the second Business Day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised nor later than the fifth Business Day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised. Payment of the purchase price for the Additional Shares shall be made at the Option Closing Date in the same manner and at the same office as the payment for the Purchased Shares.] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option]

 

I-1


Each of the provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations and warranties set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made at and as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option], except that each representation and warranty in Section 2 of the Equity Distribution Agreement which makes reference to the Prospectus (as therein defined) shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty as of the date of the Equity Distribution Agreement in relation to the Prospectus, and also a representation and warranty as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option] in relation to the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to relate to the Purchased Shares.

An amendment to the Registration Statement (as defined in the Equity Distribution Agreement), or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Shares [and the Additional Shares] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option], in the form heretofore delivered to the Manager is now proposed to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and the latter agrees to purchase from the Company the number of shares of the Purchased Shares at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule I hereto.

 

I-2


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between the Manager and the Company.

 

ROKU, INC.
By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:

[Signature Page to Terms Agreement]


ACCEPTED as of the date

first written above.

 

    Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
    By:  

 

  Name:
  Title:

 

[Signature Page to Terms Agreement]


Schedule I to the Terms Agreement

Title of Purchased Shares [and Additional Shares]:

Class A Common Stock, par value $ 0.0001 per share

Number of Shares of Purchased Shares:

[Number of Shares of Additional Shares:]

[Price to Public:]

Purchase Price by Citigroup Global Markets Inc.:

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.

Method of Delivery:

Free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company in return for payment of the purchase price.

Time of Delivery:

Closing Location:

Documents to be Delivered:

The following documents referred to in the Equity Distribution Agreement shall be delivered as a condition to the closing at the Time of Delivery [and on any Option Closing Date]:

(1) The opinion referred to in Section 4(l).

(2) The opinion referred to in Section 4(m).

(3) The accountants’ letter referred to in Section4(n).

(4) The officers’ certificates referred to in Section 4(k).

(5) Such other documents as the Manager shall reasonably request.

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

 

LOGO

John T. McKenna

+1 650 843 5059

jmckenna@cooley.com

November 19, 2019

Roku, Inc.

150 Winchester Circle

Los Gatos, CA 95032

Ladies and Gentlemen:

You have requested our opinion, as counsel to Roku, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), with respect to certain matters in connection with the offering by the Company of up to 1,000,000 shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, pursuant to a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-230204) (the Registration Statement), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the Commission) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Act), the prospectus included within the Registration Statement (the “Base Prospectus”), and the prospectus supplement dated November 19, 2019, filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Rules and Regulations of the Act (together with the Base Prospectus, the “Prospectus”). The Shares are to be sold by the Company in accordance with an Equity Distribution Agreement, dated November 19, 2019, between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Agreement”), as described in the Prospectus.

In connection with this opinion, we have examined and relied upon the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Agreement, the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, its Bylaws, as amended, and the originals or copies certified to our satisfaction of such records, documents, certificates, memoranda and other instruments as in our judgment are necessary or appropriate to enable us to render the opinion expressed below. In rendering this opinion, we have assumed the genuineness and authenticity of all signatures on original documents; the genuineness and authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals; the conformity to originals of all documents submitted to us as copies; and the accuracy, completeness and authenticity of certificates of public officials.

We have assumed (i) that each sale of Shares will be duly authorized by the Board of Directors of the Company, a duly authorized committee thereof or a person or body pursuant to an authorization granted in accordance with Section 152 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), (ii) that no more than 1,000,000 Shares will be sold under the Agreement and (iii) that the price at which the Shares are sold will equal or exceed the par value of the Shares. We express no opinion to the extent that future issuances of securities of the Company and/or anti-dilution adjustments to outstanding securities of the Company cause the number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding or issuable upon conversion or exercise of outstanding securities of the Company to exceed the number of Shares then issuable under the Agreement.

Our opinion herein is expressed solely with respect to the DGCL. Our opinion is based on these laws as in effect on the date hereof. We express no opinion to the extent that any other laws are applicable to the subject matter hereof and express no opinion and provide no assurance as to compliance with any federal or state securities law, rule or regulation.

 

COOLEY LLP    3175 HANOVER STREET    PALO ALTO, CA    94304-1130

T: (650) 843-5000    F: (650) 849-7400    COOLEY.COM


LOGO

Roku, Inc.

November 19, 2019

Page Two

 

On the basis of the foregoing, and in reliance thereon, we are of the opinion that the Shares, when sold and issued against payment therefor in accordance with the Agreement, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

We consent to the reference to our firm under the caption “Legal Matters” in the Prospectus and to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K to be filed with the Commission for incorporation by reference into the Registration Statement.

 

Very truly yours,
Cooley LLP
By:   /s/ John T. McKenna
  John T. McKenna

 

COOLEY LLP    3175 HANOVER STREET    PALO ALTO, CA    94304-1130

T: (650) 843-5000    F: (650) 849-7400    COOLEY.COM